The simplest and most common types of engines include four vertical cylinders that are rowed in a row. This is called an inline engine. A car with a capacity of more than 2,000 cc usually has six cylinders arranged in a row.
Some cars are equipped with more compact V-type engines, especially those with 8- or 12-cylinders, and some with six cylinders. Here, the cylinders are arranged opposite each other at an angle of at most 90 degrees.
Some engines have horizontally opposed cylinders. They are extensions of the V-engine and the angle has been extended to 180 degrees. The advantage lies in saving some aspects of height and balance.
The cylinders in which the pistons operate are cast into the block, mountings for auxiliary equipment, such as filters for lubricating the oil of the engine, and pumps for fuel. A tank called the oil sump is bolted to the underside of the crankcase.
Both block and head are usually made of cast iron. But sometimes aluminum is chosen for the head, because it is lighter and dissipates heat more efficiently.